Talking about voting machines on this blog might seem a little off-topic, but I’m always fascinated by how automation is always interconnected with the people using it. That’s why I think voting machines are fascinating: because people are as much a part of the system as the technology.
I was interested to watch David Bismark’s recent TED talk on “E-voting without fraud”:
The method he’s describing seems to be the same as in this IEEE article.
Now I’m not an expert in the election process, but there are some fundamental things we all understand. One of those fundamental elements is called the “Secret Ballot“. Canada and the US have both had a secret ballot since the late 1800’s. When the concept is introduced in school, we’re shown a picture of how people “used” to cast their votes, which was to stand up in front of everyone at the polling station and call out your choice. Off to the side of the picture, we always saw a gang of people ready to rough up the people who voted for the “wrong” candidate. Therefore, most of us grow up thinking that freedom from retribution is the one and only reason for a secret ballot, so everyone thinks, “as long as nobody can learn who I voted for, then I’m safe.”
That’s really only half the reason for a secret ballot. The other half of the reason is to prevent vote-selling. In order to sell your vote, you have to prove who you voted for. With a secret ballot, you can swear up and down that you voted for Candidate A, but there really is no way for even you to prove who you voted for. That’s a pretty remarkable property of our elections. That’s the reason that lots of places won’t allow you to take a camera or camera-equipped cell phone into the voting booth with you. If the system is working correctly, you shouldn’t be able to prove who you voted for. That means you’re really free to vote for the candidate you really want to win.
I would also like to point out that vote-selling isn’t always straightforward. Spouses (of both genders) sometimes exert extreme pressure over their significant others, and some might insist on seeing proof of who the other voted for. Likewise, while employers could get in hot water, I could easily imagine a situation where proving to your boss that you voted the way he wanted ended up earning you a raise or a promotion over someone who didn’t. All of these pseudo-vote-selling practices always favour the societal group that has a lot of power at the moment, which is why it’s important for our freedoms to limit their influence.
That Means NO Voting Receipts
If you want to design a system that prevents vote-selling, you can’t allow the voter to leave the polling station with any evidence that can be used to prove who they voted for. (The system presented above allows you to leave with a receipt, but they claim it can’t be used to prove who you voted for.)
With this in mind, isn’t it amazing how well our voting system works right now? You mark your ballot in secret, then you fold up the paper, walk out from the booth in plain public view, and you put your single vote into the ballot box with everyone else’s. Once it’s in that box and that box is full of many votes, it’s practically impossible to determine who cast which vote, but if we enforce proper handling of the ballot box, we can all trust that all of the votes were counted.
We Want to Destroy Some Information and Keep Other Information
In order for the system to work correctly, we need to effectively destroy the link between voter and vote, but reliably hang on to the actual vote and make sure it gets counted.
Anyone who has done a lot of work with managing data in computers probably starts to get nervous at that point. In most computer systems, the only way we can really trust our data is to add things like redundancy and audit logs, all of it in separate systems. That means there’s a lot of copying going on, and it’s very easy to share the information that you’re trying to destroy. Once you’ve shared it, what if the other side mishandles it? Trust me, it’s a difficult problem. It’s even more complicated when you realize that even if the voting software was open source, you really can’t prove that a machine hasn’t been tampered with.
The method describe above offers a different approach:
- With the receipt you get, you can prove that it is included in the “posted votes”
- You can prove that the list of “tally votes” corresponds to the list of “posted votes” (so yours is in there somewhere)
- You can’t determine which tally vote corresponds to which posted vote
ATMs and Voting Machines are Two Different Ballgames
One of the things you often hear from voting machine proponents, or just common people who haven’t thought about it much, is that we’ve been using “similar” machines for years that take care of our money (ATMs) and they can obviously be designed securely enough. Certainly if we have security that’s good enough for banks, it ought to be good enough for voting machines, right?
This is a very big fallacy. The only reason you trust an ATM is because every time there’s a bank transaction, it’s always between at least two parties, and each party keeps their own trail of evidence. When you deposit your paycheque into the ATM, you have a pay stub, plus the receipt that the ATM prints out that you can take home with you. On top of that, your employer has a record that they issued you that cheque, and there will be a corresponding record in their bank account statement showing that the money was deducted. If the ATM doesn’t do its job, there are lots of records elsewhere held by third parties that prove that it’s wrong. An ATM is a “black box”, but it has verifiable inputs and outputs.
The system above attempts to make the inputs and outputs of the voting system verifiable.
Another Workable E-voting System
The unfortunate thing about the proposed system, above, is that it’s rather complicated. If you read the PDF I linked to, you need a couple of Ph.D. dissertations under your belt before you can make it through. I don’t like to criticize without offering a workable alternative, so here goes:
If you want to make a secret ballot voting system that’s resistant to fraud, you absolutely need to record the information on a physical record. If you want to make it trustworthy, the storage medium needs to be human readable. Paper always has been, and continues to be, a great medium for storing human readable information in a trustworthy and secure way. There are ways to store data securely electronically, but at the moment it requires you to understand a lot of advanced mathematical concepts, so it’s better if we stick with a storage medium that everyone understands and trusts. In this system we will stick with paper ballots. They need to go into a box, in public view, and they need to be handled correctly.
Standardized Human and Machine Readable Ballots
Some standards organization needs to come up with an international standard for paper ballots. This standard needs to include both human and machine readable copies of the data. I suggest using some kind of 2D barcode technology to store the machine readable information in the upper right corner. Importantly: the human readable and machine readable portions should contain precisely the same information.
Please realize I’m not talking about standardized ballots that people then fill out with a pencil. I’m talking about paper ballots that are generated by a voting machine after the voter selects their choice using the machine. The voter gets to see their generated paper ballot and can verify the human readable portion of it before they put it into the ballot box.
Voting Machines vs. Vote Tallying Machines
Now that we have a standardized ballot, the election agencies are free to purchase machines from any vendor, as long as they comply with the standard. There will actually be two types of machines: voting machines that actually let the voter generate a ballot, and vote tallying machines that can process printed ballots quickly by using the machine readable information on each ballot.
One of the goals of e-voting is to be able to produce a preliminary result as soon as voting has completed. Nothing says that the Voting Machines can’t keep a tally of votes, and upload those preliminary results to a central station when the election is complete. However, the “real” votes are the ones on paper in the ballot boxes.
Shortly after the election, the ballot boxes need to be properly transported to a vote tallying facility where they can be counted using the vote tallying machines, to verify the result.
Checks and Balances
Part of the verification process should be to take a random sample of ballot boxes and count them manually, using the human readable information, and compare that with the results from the vote tallying machine. This must be a public process. If a discrepancy is found, you can easily determine if it was the voting machine or the vote tallying machine that was wrong. Assuming the ballots were visually inspected by the voters, then we can assume that the human readable portion is correct. If the machine readable information doesn’t match the human readable information, then the voting machine is fraudulent or tampered with. If the machine and human readable information match, then the vote tallying machine is fraudulent or tampered with.
If one company supplied both the voting machines and the vote tallying machines, then it would be a little bit easier to commit fraud, because if they both disagreed in the same way, it might not be caught. That’s why it’s important that the machines are sourced from different independent vendors.
No Silver Bullet
Notice that none of the current or proposed solutions are successfully resistant to someone taking some kind of recording equipment like a camera or a cell phone with camera into the voting booth with them. We still need some way to deal with this.