Contact and Coil | Nearly In Control

Mar/18

18

Idiomatic Ladder Logic

I want to talk about the concept of “idioms” or the idea of “idomatic” when it applies to programming languages.

Python is said to have “strong idioms“:

One reason for the high readability of Python code is its relatively complete set of Code Style guidelines and “Pythonic” idioms.

When a veteran Python developer (a Pythonista) calls portions of code not “Pythonic”, they usually mean that these lines of code do not follow the common guidelines and fail to express its intent in what is considered the best (hear: most readable) way.

Many years ago I did some programming in Perl. A main philosophy of Perl is the acronym TMTOWTDI (There’s more than one way to do it). That’s an example of a language with “weak idioms”. This goes hand-in-hand with Perl’s apparent lack of focus on readability. In fact, some detractors of the language claim it’s a “write-once, read-never” language.

When I started writing the Patterns of Ladder Logic Programming page, I wasn’t thinking of it at the time, but in retrospect I was trying to document “Idiomatic Ladder Logic.” Yes, there are many ways to accomplish the same task in a PLC, but you should stick to idioms when they help communicate the meaning of your code.

When you deviate from these idioms, you’re communicating to the reader that something about this case is different. If I expect a fault coil to be sealed in, and you make it a set-reset, you’re communicating to me that this fault condition needs to survive a power outage. That’s useful information. If your fault coil isn’t sealed in, that must mean you intend it to be self-clearing.

Even your deviations should be idiomatic. Don’t make fault coils self-clearing by putting a Reset instruction for the same coil somewhere else in your code. That won’t be obvious to the reader, and is the reason for the idiom “don’t use a coil more than one place in your logic.”

Most or all new PLCs can be programmed in multiple languages, from the IEC-61131-3 specification. These languages are very different, and the idiomatic way to do something in one language isn’t necessarily the way to do it in another language. For instance, doing any kind of loop (for, while) is non-idiomatic in ladder logic, but is certainly an idiomatic construct in structured text. That means part of our job as programmers is to pick the correct language to express our intent.

Data collection, string parsing, and math is naturally expressed in structured text (ST), but control logic is naturally expressed in ladder diagram (LD). Part tracking logic can go either way. Sequential function chart (SFC) is perfect for expressing a sequence, ladder diagram is a good runner up using the Step Pattern, and structured text requires that you define a state machine, which is the least expressive option.

I once wrote a bubble-sort routine in ladder logic for a SLC500 PLC. I wish I’d had structured text back then. First pick the right language, and then pick the right idiom.

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